The rates of development of resistance to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome in 10 strains of Enterobacter cloacae were determined by daily transfer for 7 days to fresh medium containing twofold serial dilutions of the antibiotics. Development of resistance to ceftriaxone was the most rapid; this was followed by ceftazidime, cefpirome, and cefepime. Resistant variants selected by ceftriaxone and ceftazidime were cross-resistant and produced very high levels of beta-lactamase. On the other hand, resistant variants selected by cefepime and cefpirome often had moderately high levels of beta-lactamase and diminished levels of the 39- to 40-kDa porin protein.
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